1And the ark of Jehovah was in the land of the Philistines seven months.2And the Philistines summoned the priests and the diviners, saying, What shall we do with the ark of Jehovah? Make known to us how we shall send it to its place.3And they said, If you send away the ark of the God of Israel, do not send it empty; but turn it back to return it to Him with a trespass offering. Then you will be healed, and it will be known to you why His hand is not removed from you.4So they said, What is the trespass offering which we shall return to Him? And they answered, Five golden tumors and five golden mice, according to the number of the rulers of the Philistines. For the same plague was upon all of you and upon your rulers.5Therefore you shall make images of your tumors and images of your mice that are ruining the land, and you shall give glory to the God of Israel. Perhaps He will lighten His hand from off you, from off your gods, and from off your land. 6Why then do you harden your hearts as the Egyptians and Pharaoh hardened their hearts? When He did mighty things among them, did they not let the people go, and they departed? 7Now therefore, make a new cart, take two milk cows which have never been yoked, and when you have tied the cows to the cart, take their calves home, away from them.8And take the ark of Jehovah and set it on the cart; and put the articles of gold which you are returning to Him as a trespass offering in a chest by its side; and send it away, and let it go.9And watch: if it goes up the way to its own territory, to Beth Shemesh, then He has done us this great evil. But if not, then we shall know that it is not His hand that has struck us; it has happened to us by chance.10And the men did so: They took two milk cows and tied them to the cart, and shut up their calves at home.11And they set the ark of Jehovah on the cart, and the chest with the gold mice and the images of their tumors.12And the cows headed straight for the way to Beth Shemesh, and went along the highway, lowing as they went, and did not turn aside to the right hand or the left. And the rulers of the Philistines went after them to the border of Beth Shemesh.13Now those of Beth Shemesh were reaping their wheat harvest in the valley; and they lifted up their eyes and saw the ark, and rejoiced to see it.14And the cart came into the field of Joshua of Beth Shemesh, and stood there; and a large stone was there. And they split the wood of the cart and offered the cows as a burnt offering unto Jehovah.15And the Levites took down the ark of Jehovah and the chest that was with it, in which were the articles of gold, and put them on the large stone. And the men of Beth Shemesh offered burnt offerings and made sacrifices that day unto Jehovah.16And when the five rulers of the Philistines had seen it, they returned to Ekron the same day.17And these are the golden tumors which the Philistines returned as a trespass offering unto Jehovah: one for Ashdod, one for Gaza, one for Ashkelon, one for Gath, one for Ekron;18and the golden mice, according to the number of all the cities of the Philistines belonging to the five rulers, both fortified cities and rural villages, even as far as the large stone of Abel on which they set the ark of Jehovah, which stone remains to this day in the field of Joshua of Beth Shemesh.19And He struck the men of Beth Shemesh, because they had looked into the ark of Jehovah. He struck fifty thousand and seventy men of the people, and the people mourned because Jehovah had struck the people with a great slaughter.20And the men of Beth Shemesh said, Who is able to stand before Jehovah, this holy God? And to whom shall He go up from us?21And they sent messengers to the inhabitants of Kirjath Jearim, saying, The Philistines have brought back the ark of Jehovah; come down and take it up with you.
Jamieson Fausset Brown Bible Commentary 1
THE PHILISTINES COUNSEL HOW TO SEND BACK THE ARK. (1Sam 6:1
the ark . . . was in the country of the Philistines seven months--Notwithstanding the calamities which its presence had brought on the country and the people, the Philistine lords were unwilling to relinquish such a prize, and tried every means to retain it with peace and safety, but in vain. 2
the Philistines called for the priests and the diviners--The designed restoration of the ark was not, it seems, universally approved of, and many doubts were expressed whether the prevailing pestilence was really a judgment of Heaven. The priests and diviners united all parties by recommending a course which would enable them easily to discriminate the true character of the calamities, and at the same time to propitiate the incensed Deity for any acts of disrespect which might have been shown to His ark. 4
Five golden emerods--Votive or thank offerings were commonly made by the heathen in prayer for, or gratitude after, deliverance from lingering or dangerous disorders, in the form of metallic (generally silver) models or images of the diseased parts of the body. This is common still in Roman Catholic countries, as well as in the temples of the Hindus and other modern heathen.
five golden mice--This animal is supposed by some to be the jerboa or jumping mouse of Syria and Egypt [BOCHART]; by others, to be the short-tailed field mouse, which often swarms in prodigious numbers and commits great ravages in the cultivated fields of Palestine. 5
give glory unto the God of Israel--By these propitiatory presents, the Philistines would acknowledge His power and make reparation for the injury done to His ark.
lighten his hand . . . from off your gods--Elohim for god. 6
Wherefore then do ye harden your hearts, as the Egyptians and Pharaoh hardened their hearts?--The memory of the appalling judgments that had been inflicted on Egypt was not yet obliterated. Whether preserved in written records, or in floating tradition, they were still fresh in the minds of men, and being extensively spread, were doubtless the means of diffusing the knowledge and fear of the true God. 7
make a new cart--Their object in making a new one for the purpose seems to have been not only for cleanliness and neatness, but from an impression that there would have been an impropriety in using one that had been applied to meaner or more common services. It appears to have been a covered wagon (see on 2Sam 6:3
two milch kine--Such untrained heifers, wanton and vagrant, would pursue no certain and regular path, like those accustomed to the yoke, and therefore were most unlikely of their own spontaneous motion to prosecute the direct road to the land of Israel.
bring their calves home from them--The strong natural affection of the dams might be supposed to stimulate their return homewards, rather than direct their steps in a foreign country. 8
take the ark of the Lord, and lay it upon the cart--This mode of carrying the sacred symbol was forbidden; but the ignorance of the Philistines made the indignity excusable (see on 2Sam 6:6
put the jewels . . . in a coffer by the side thereof--The way of securing treasure in the East is still in a chest, chained to the house wall or some solid part of the furniture. 9
Beth-shemesh--that is, "house of the sun," now Ain Shems [ROBINSON], a city of priests in Judah, in the southeast border of Dan, lying in a beautiful and extensive valley. JOSEPHUS says they were set a-going near a place where the road divided into two--the one leading back to Ekron, where were their calves, and the other to Beth-shemesh. Their frequent lowings attested their ardent longing for their young, and at the same time the supernatural influence that controlled their movements in a contrary direction. 12
the lords of the Philistines went after them--to give their tribute of homage, to prevent imposture, and to obtain the most reliable evidence of the truth. The result of this journey tended to their own deeper humiliation, and the greater illustration of God's glory. 14
and they clave--that is, the Beth-shemites, in an irrepressible outburst of joy.
offered the kine--Though contrary to the requirements of the law (Lev 1:3
; Lev 22:19
), these animals might properly be offered, as consecrated by God Himself; and though not beside the tabernacle, there were many instances of sacrifices offered by prophets and holy men on extraordinary occasions in other places. 17
And these are the golden emerods . . . and the mice--There were five representative images of the emerods, corresponding to the five principal cities of the Philistines. But the number of the golden mice must have been greater, for they were sent from the walled towns as well as the country villages. 18
unto the great stone of Abel--Abel, or Aben, means "stone," so that without resorting to italics, the reading should be, "the great stone." 19
he smote the men of Beth-shemesh, because they had looked into the ark--In the ecstasy of delight at seeing the return of the ark, the Beth-shemesh reapers pried into it beneath the wagon cover; and instead of covering it up again, as a sacred utensil, they let it remain exposed to common inspection, wishing it to be seen, in order that all might enjoy the triumph of seeing the votive offerings presented to it, and gratify curiosity with the sight of the sacred shrine. This was the offense of those Israelites (Levites, as well as common people), who had treated the ark with less reverence than the Philistines themselves.
he smote of the people fifty thousand and threescore and ten men--Beth-shemesh being only a village, this translation must be erroneous, and should be, "he smote fifty out of a thousand," being only fourteen hundred in all who indulged this curiosity. God, instead of decimating, according to an ancient usage, slew only a twentieth part; that is, according to JOSEPHUS, seventy out of fourteen hundred (see Num 4:18
Kirjath-jearim--"the city of woods," also called Kirjath-baal (Josh 15:60
; Josh 18:14
; 1Chr 13:6
-7). This was the nearest town to Beth-shemesh; and being a place of strength, it was a more fitting place for the residence of the ark. Beth-shemesh being in a low plain, and Kirjath-jearim on a hill, explains the message, "Come ye down, and fetch it up to you."