1A JeHoVaH riekol Mojžišovi a Áronovi v Egyptskej zemi: 2Tento mesiac vám bude počiatkom mesiacov; prvým vám bude z mesiacov v roku.3Hovorte celej obci Izraelovej a poviete: Desiateho dňa tohoto mesiaca si vezmú každý dobytča, podľa domu svojich otcov, dobytča na dom.4A keby bol niektorý dom primálo na dobytča, vtedy vezme on a jeho súsed, blízky jeho domu, podľa počtu duší; každý podľa toho, koľko ktorý zjie, toľko počítate na dobytča.5Dobytča budete mať bez vady, samca, ročného; vezmete ho z oviec alebo z kôz.6A majúc naň pozor budete ho opatrovať až do štrnásteho dňa tohoto mesiaca, a zabije ho celé shromaždenie obce Izraelovej medzi oboma časmi večernými.7Potom vezmú z jeho krvi a dajú na obe strany podvojí aj na vrchný prah na domoch, v ktorých ho budú jesť.8Jeho mäso budú jesť tej noci pečené na ohni, aj nekvasené chleby; s horkými zelinami ho budú jesť.9Nebudete z neho jesť surového ani vareného vo vode, ale iba pečené na ohni, všetko spolu: jeho hlavu s jeho nohami i s jeho vnútornosťami.10Ani nezanecháte z neho ničoho do rána; a to, čo by zostalo z neho do rána, spálite ohňom.11A takto ho budete jesť: svoje bedrá budete mať prepásané, svoju obuv na svojich nohách a svoju palicu vo svojej ruke, a budete ho jesť v spechu; to je pesach JeHoVaHovo <Pesach JeHoVaHovo = (ušetrujúce) preskočenie JeHoVaHovo, čiže slávnosť baránka>,12pretože v tú noc pojdem Egyptskou zemou a pobijem všetko prvorodené v Egyptskej zemi od človeka až do hoväda a na všetkých bohoch egyptských vykonám súdy, ja JeHoVaH.13A tá krv vám bude na znamenie na domoch, v ktorých budete, a keď uvidím krv, preskočím vás, a nebude medzi vami rany zahubiť, keď budem biť prvorodené v Egyptskej zemi.14Ten deň vám bude na pamiatku, a budete ho sláviť ako slávnosť JeHoVaHovu po svojich pokoleniach; večným ustanovením ho budete sláviť.15Sedem dní budete jesť nekvasené chleby. Ale už v prvý deň odstránite kvas zo svojich domov, lebo každý, kto by jedol niečo kvaseného od prvého dňa až do siedmeho, tá duša bude vyplienená z Izraela.16A prvého dňa bude sväté shromaždenie, i v siedmy deň vám bude sväté shromaždenie. Nijaká práca nebude sa v nich robiť iba to, čo je každej duši potrebné na jedenie, to jediné budete môcť robiť.17A budete ostríhať slávnosť nekvasených chlebov, lebo práve v ten istý deň som vyviedol vaše vojská z Egyptskej zeme, a preto budete ostríhať tento deň po svojich pokoleniach večným ustanovením.18Prvého mesiaca, štrnásteho dňa toho mesiaca večer budete jesť nekvasené chleby až do dvadsiateho prvého dňa toho istého mesiaca večer.19Sedem dní sa nenajde kvas vo vašich domoch. Lebo každý, kto by jedol niečo kvaseného, tá duša bude vyťatá z obce Izraelovej, či už by to bol pohostín a či zrodený v zemi.20Nebudete jesť ničoho kvaseného; vo všetkých svojich bydliskách budete jesť nekvasené chleby.21Vtedy svolal Mojžiš všetkých starších Izraelových a povedal im: Iďte a vezmite si dobytča z drobného stáda po svojich čeľadiach a zabite obeť pesachu, baránka.22A vezmete viazaničku yzopu a zamočíte do krvi, ktorá bude v medenici a dotknete sa horného prahu a oboch strán podvojí krvou, ktorá bude v medenici, a vy nikto nevyjdete zo dverí svojho domu až do rána.23A JeHoVaH pojde zemou a bude biť Egypťanov ranou a keď uvidí krv na vrchnom prahu a na oboch stranách podvojí, preskočí JeHoVaH dvere a nedá zhubcovi, aby vošiel do vašich domov zabiť.24A budete ostríhať túto vec; bude to ustanovením tebe i tvojim synom až na veky.25A stane sa, keď vojdete do zeme, ktorú vám dá JeHoVaH, tak ako hovoril, že budete zachovávať túto službu.26A stane sa, keď vám povedia vaši synovia: Čo to máte jakú službu?27Poviete: To je bitná obeť pesachu JeHoVaHovi, ktorý preskočil domy synov Izraelových v Egypte, keď bil Egypťanov smrteľnou ranou a naše domy vytrhnul od záhuby. A ľud skloniac svoje hlavy poklonil sa.28Vtedy išli a urobili synovia Izraelovi tak, ako prikázal JeHoVaH Mojžišovi a Áronovi, tak urobili.29Potom stalo sa o polnoci, že JeHoVaH pobil všetko prvorodené v Egyptskej zemi od prvorodeného faraonovho, ktorý mal sedieť na jeho tróne, až do prvorodeného zajatca, ktorý bol v dome jamy, i všetko prvorodené z hoviad.30Vtedy vstal faraon vnoci, on i všetci jeho služobníci i všetci Egypťania, a povstal veliký krik v Egypte, lebo nebolo domu, kde by nebolo bývalo mŕtveho.31A zavolal Mojžiša a Árona vnoci a riekol: Vstaňte, vyjdite zpomedzi môjho ľudu i vy i synovia Izraelovi a iďte, slúžte JeHoVaHovi, tak ako ste hovorili.32Vezmite i svoje drobné stádo i svoj hovädzí dobytok, ako ste vraveli, a iďte a požehnajte i mňa.33A Egypťania nútili ľud, aby sa ponáhľali, aby ich čím skôr vyhnali zo zeme, lebo vraveli: Všetci pomrieme.34Vtedy vzal ľud svoje cesto, prv ako by bolo skyslo, svoje nádoby na cesto, zavinuté do svojich hábov, na svoje plecia.35A synovia Izraelovi urobili podľa slova Mojžišovho a vyžiadali si od Egypťanov strieborné klenoty a zlaté klenoty, aj rúcha.36A JeHoVaH dal ľudu milosť v očiach Egypťanov, že im splnili ich žiadosť. A tak olúpili Egypťanov.37A synovia Izraelovi sa rušali z Ramsesa do Sukkóta okolo šesť sto tisíc peších mužov krome detí.38I mnoho primiešaného ľudu odišlo s nimi hore i drobného stáda a hoviad, dobytka náramne mnoho.39A napiekli z cesta, ktoré vyniesli z Egypta, nekvasených koláčov, lebo nebolo skyslo, pretože boli vyhnaní z Egypta a nemohli otáľať, ba ani potravy na cestu si nepripravili.40A bývania synov Izraelových, čo bývali v Egypte, bolo štyristo tridsať rokov.41A stalo sa po dokončení štyristo tridsiatich rokoch, že práve toho istého dňa vyšly všetky vojská JeHoVaHove z Egyptskej zeme.42Bola to noc ochrany JeHoVaHovej nato, aby ich vyviedol z Egyptskej zeme. Tým bude táto noc JeHoVaHovi, ochranou Božou všetkým synom Izraelovým po ich pokoleniach.43A JeHoVaH riekol Mojžišovi a Áronovi: Toto je ustanovenie pesachu: niktorý cudzinec nebude jesť z neho.44Ale každý váš sluha, kúpený za peniaze, keď ho obrežeš, vtedy bude jesť z neho.45Prišlec, ktorý sa usadil medzi vami, a najatý za mzdu nebude jesť z neho.46V jednom a v tom istom dome sa bude jesť; nevynesieš z jeho mäsa von z domu, a kosti na ňom nezlomíte.47Celá obec Izraelova ho učinia.48A keď bude pohostíniť u teba pohostín a bude sláviť slávnosť baránka JeHoVaHovi, obreže sa mu každý mužského pohlavia, a len vtedy pristúpi, aby ho slávil. A bude jako zrodený v zemi. Ale nikto neobrezaný nebude jesť z neho.49Jeden a ten istý zákon bude jako zrodenému doma tak i pohostínovi, ktorý pohostíni medzi vami.50A všetci synovia Izraelovi urobili tak, ako prikázal JeHoVaH Mojžišovi a Áronovi, tak urobili.51A stalo sa toho istého dňa, že JeHoVaH vyviedol synov Izraelových z Egyptskej zeme aj s ich vojskami.
Jamieson Fausset Brown Bible Commentary 1
THE PASSOVER INSTITUTED. (Exod 12:1
the Lord spake unto Moses--rather, "had spoken unto Moses and Aaron"; for it is evident that the communication here described must have been made to them on or before the tenth of the month. 2
this month shall be unto you the beginning of months--the first not only in order but in estimation. It had formerly been the seventh according to the reckoning of the civil year, which began in September, and continued unchanged, but it was thenceforth to stand first in the national religious year which began in March, April. 3
Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel--The recent events had prepared the Israelitish people for a crisis in their affairs, and they seem to have yielded implicit obedience at this time to Moses. It is observable that, amid all the hurry and bustle of such a departure, their serious attention was to be given to a solemn act of religion.
a lamb for an house--a kid might be taken (Exod 12:5
). The service was to be a domestic one, for the deliverance was to be from an evil threatened to every house in Egypt. 4
if the household be too little for the lamb, &c.--It appears from JOSEPHUS that ten persons were required to make up the proper paschal communion.
every man according to his eating--It is said that the quantity eaten of the paschal lamb, by each individual, was about the size of an olive. 5
lamb . . . without blemish--The smallest deformity or defect made a lamb unfit for sacrifice--a type of Christ (Heb 7:26
; 1Pet 1:19
a male of the first year--Christ in the prime of life. 6
keep it up until the fourteenth day, &c.--Being selected from the rest of the flock, it was to be separated four days before sacrifice; and for the same length of time was Christ under examination and His spotless innocence declared before the world.
kill it in the evening--that is, the interval between the sun's beginning to decline, and sunset, corresponding to our three o'clock in the afternoon. 7
take of the blood, and strike it on the two side-posts, &c.--as a sign of safety to those within. The posts must be considered of tents, in which the Israelites generally lived, though some might be in houses. Though the Israelites were sinners as well as the Egyptians, God was pleased to accept the substitution of a lamb--the blood of which, being seen sprinkled on the doorposts, procured them mercy. It was to be on the sideposts and upper doorposts, where it might be looked to, not on the threshold, where it might be trodden under foot. This was an emblem of the blood of sprinkling (Heb 12:24
; Heb 10:29
roast with fire--for the sake of expedition; and this difference was always observed between the cooking of the paschal lamb and the other offerings (2Chr 35:13
unleavened bread--also for the sake of despatch (Deut 16:3
), but as a kind of corruption (Luke 12:1
) there seems to have been a typical meaning under it (1Cor 5:8
bitter herbs--literally, "bitters"--to remind the Israelites of their affliction in Egypt, and morally of the trials to which God's people are subject on account of sin. 9
Eat not of it raw--that is, with any blood remaining; a caveat against conformity to idolatrous practices. It was to be roasted whole, not a bone to be broken, and this pointed to Christ (John 19:36
let nothing of it remain until the morning--which might be applied in a superstitious manner, or allowed to putrefy, which in a hot climate would speedily have ensued; and which was not becoming in what had been offered to God. 11
THE RITE OF THE PASSOVER. (Exod 12:11
thus shall ye eat it; with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet--as prepared for a journey. The first was done by the skirts of the loose outer cloth being drawn up and fastened in the girdle, so as to leave the leg and knee free for motion. As to the other, the Orientals never wear shoes indoors, and the ancient Egyptians, as appears from the monuments, did not usually wear either shoes or sandals. These injunctions seem to have applied chiefly to the first celebration of the rite.
it is the Lord's passover--called by this name from the blood-marked dwellings of the Israelites being passed over figuratively by the destroying angel. 12
smite . . . gods of Egypt--perhaps used here for princes and grandees. But, according to Jewish tradition, the idols of Egypt were all on that night broken in pieces (see Num 33:4
; Isa 19:1
for a memorial, &c.--The close analogy traceable in all points between the Jewish and Christian passovers is seen also in the circumstance that both festivals were instituted before the events they were to commemorate had transpired. 15
UNLEAVENED BREAD. (Exo. 12:15-51)
Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread, &c.--This was to commemorate another circumstance in the departure of the Israelites, who were urged to leave so hurriedly that their dough was unleavened (Exod 12:39
), and they had to eat unleavened cakes (Deut 16:3
). The greatest care was always taken by the Jews to free their houses from leaven--the owner searching every corner of his dwelling with a lighted candle. A figurative allusion to this is made (1Cor 5:7
). The exclusion of leaven for seven days would not be attended with inconvenience in the East, where the usual leaven is dough kept till it becomes sour, and it is kept from one day to another for the purpose of preserving leaven in readiness. Thus even were there none in all the country, it could be got within twenty-four hours [HARMER].
that soul shall be cut off--excommunicated from the community and privileges of the chosen people. 16
there shall be an holy convocation--literally, calling of the people, which was done by sound of trumpets (Num 10:2
), a sacred assembly--for these days were to be regarded as Sabbaths--excepting only that meat might be cooked on them (Exod 16:23
ye shall observe, &c.--The seven days of this feast were to commence the day after the passover. It was a distinct festival following that feast; but although this feast was instituted like the passover before the departure, the observance of it did not take place till after. 19
stranger--No foreigner could partake of the passover, unless circumcised; the "stranger" specified as admissible to the privilege must, therefore, be considered a Gentile proselyte. 21
Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, &c.--Here are given special directions for the observance. 22
hyssop--a small red moss [HASSELQUIST]; the caper-plant [ROYLE]. It was used in the sprinkling, being well adapted for such purposes, as it grows in bushes--putting out plenty of suckers from a single root. And it is remarkable that it was ordained in the arrangements of an all-wise Providence that the Roman soldiers should undesignedly, on their part, make use of this symbolical plant to Christ when, as our Passover, He was sacrificed for us [John 19:29
none . . . shall go out at the door of his house until the morning--This regulation was peculiar to the first celebration, and intended, as some think, to prevent any suspicion attaching to them of being agents in the impending destruction of the Egyptians; there is an allusion to it (Isa 26:20
when your children shall say, . . . What mean ye by this service--Independently of some observances which were not afterwards repeated, the usages practised at this yearly commemorative feast were so peculiar that the curiosity of the young would be stimulated, and thus parents had an excellent opportunity, which they were enjoined to embrace, for instructing each rising generation in the origin and leading facts of the national faith. 27
the people bowed the head, and worshipped--All the preceding directions were communicated through the elders, and the Israelites, being deeply solemnized by the influence of past and prospective events, gave prompt and faithful obedience. 29
at midnight the Lord smote all the first-born in the land of Egypt--At the moment when the Israelites were observing the newly instituted feast in the singular manner described, the threatened calamity overtook the Egyptians. It is more easy to imagine than describe the confusion and terror of that people suddenly roused from sleep and enveloped in darkness--none could assist their neighbors when the groans of the dying and the wild shrieks of mourners were heard everywhere around. The hope of every family was destroyed at a stroke. This judgment, terrible though it was, evinced the equity of divine retribution. For eighty years the Egyptians had caused the male children of the Israelites to be cast into the river [Exod 1:16
], and now all their own first-born fell under the stroke of the destroying angel. They were made, in the justice of God, to feel something of what they had made His people feel. Many a time have the hands of sinners made the snares in which they have themselves been entangled, and fallen into the pit which they have dug for the righteous [Pro 28:10
]. "Verily there is a God that judgeth in the earth" [Ps 58:11
there was not a house where there was not one dead--Perhaps this statement is not to be taken absolutely. The Scriptures frequently use the words "all," "none," in a comparative sense--and so in this case. There would be many a house in which there would be no child, and many in which the first-born might be already dead. What is to be understood is, that almost every house in Egypt had a death in it. 31
called for Moses and Aaron--a striking fulfilment of the words of Moses (Exod 11:8
), and showing that they were spoken under divine suggestion. 32
also take your flocks, &c.--All the terms the king had formerly insisted on were now departed from; his pride had been effectually humbled. Appalling judgments in such rapid succession showed plainly that the hand of God was against him. His own family bereavement had so crushed him to the earth that he not only showed impatience to rid his kingdom of such formidable neighbors, but even begged an interest in their prayers. 34
people took . . . their kneading-troughs--Having lived so long in Egypt, they must have been in the habit of using the utensils common in that country. The Egyptian kneading-trough was a bowl of wicker or rush work, and it admitted of being hastily wrapped up with the dough in it and slung over the shoulder in their hykes or loose upper garments. 35
children of Israel borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver--When the Orientals go to their sacred festivals, they always put on their best jewels. The Israelites themselves thought they were only going three days' journey to hold a feast unto the Lord, and in these circumstances it would be easy for them to borrow what was necessary for a sacred festival. But borrow conveys a wrong meaning. The word rendered borrow signifies properly to ask, demand, require. The Israelites had been kept in great poverty, having received little or no wages. They now insisted on full remuneration for all their labor, and it was paid in light and valuable articles adapted for convenient carriage. 36
the Lord gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians--Such a dread of them was inspired into the universal minds of the Egyptians, that whatever they asked was readily given.
spoiled the Egyptians--The accumulated earnings of many years being paid them at this moment, the Israelites were suddenly enriched, according to the promise made to Abraham (Gen 15:14
), and they left the country like a victorious army laden with spoil (Ps 105:37
; Ezek 39:10
The children of Israel journeyed from Rameses--now generally identified with the ancient Heroopolis, and fixed at the modern Abu-Keisheid. This position agrees with the statement that the scene of the miraculous judgments against Pharaoh was "in the field of Zoan" [Ps 78:12
, Ps 78:43
]. And it is probable that, in expectation of their departure, which the king on one pretext or another delayed, the Israelites had been assembled there as a general rendezvous. In journeying from Rameses to Palestine, there was a choice of two routes--the one along the shores of the Mediterranean to El-Arish, the other more circuitous round the head of the Red Sea and the desert of Sinai. The latter Moses was directed to take (Exod 13:17
to Succoth--that is, booths, probably nothing more than a place of temporary encampment. The Hebrew word signifies a covering or shelter formed by the boughs of trees; and hence, in memory of this lodgment, the Israelites kept the feast of tabernacles yearly in this manner.
six hundred thousand . . . men--It appears from Num 1:3
that the enumeration is of men above twenty years of age. Assuming, what is now ascertained by statistical tables, that the number of males above that age is as nearly as possible the half of the total number of males, the whole male population of Israel, on this computation, would amount to 1,200,000; and adding an equal number for women and children, the aggregate number of Israelites who left Egypt would be 2,400,000. 38
a mixed multitude went with them--literally, "a great rabble" (see also Num 11:4
; Deut 29:11
); slaves, persons in the lowest grades of society, partly natives and partly foreigners, bound close to them as companions in misery, and gladly availing themselves of the opportunity to escape in the crowd. (Compare Zech 8:23
the sojourning of the children of Israel . . . four hundred and thirty years--The Septuagint renders it thus: "The sojourning of the children and of their fathers, which they sojourned in the land of Canaan and in the land of Egypt." These additions are important, for the period of sojourn in Egypt did not exceed two hundred fifteen years; but if we reckon from the time that Abraham entered Canaan and the promise was made in which the sojourn of his posterity in Egypt was announced, this makes up the time to four hundred thirty years. 41
even the selfsame day--implying an exact and literal fulfilment of the predicted period. 49
One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger--This regulation displays the liberal spirit of the Hebrew institutions. Any foreigner might obtain admission to the privileges of the nation on complying with their sacred ordinances. In the Mosaic equally as in the Christian dispensation, privilege and duty were inseparably conjoined.