1Finally, my brethren, rejoice in the Lord. For me to write the same things to you is not tedious, but for you it is safe.2Beware of dogs, beware of evil workers, beware of the concision!3For we are the circumcision, who serve God in the Spirit, rejoice in Christ Jesus, and do not trust in the flesh,4though I also might have confidence in the flesh. If anyone else thinks he may have confidence in the flesh, I more so:5circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of the Hebrews; according to the Law, a Pharisee;6concerning zeal, persecuting the church; concerning the righteousness which is in the Law, blameless.7But what things were gain to me, these I have counted loss because of Christ.8But no, rather, I also count all things loss for the excellence of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord, for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and count them as refuse, that I may gain Christ9and be found in Him, not having my own righteousness, which is from the Law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith; 10that I may know Him and the power of His resurrection, and the fellowship of His sufferings, being conformed to His death, 11if, by any means, I may attain to the resurrection from the dead.12Not that I have already attained, or am already perfected; but I press on, that I may lay hold, since Christ Jesus has also laid hold of me.13Brethren, I do not count myself to have laid hold; but one thing I do, forgetting those things which are behind and stretching forward to those things which are ahead,14I press toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus.15Therefore let us, as many as are complete, be of this mind; and if in anything you think differently, God will reveal even this to you.16Nevertheless, to the degree that we have already attained, let us walk by the same rule, let us be of the same mind.17Brethren, join in being imitators of me, and note those who so walk, as you have us for a pattern.18For many conduct themselves, of whom I have told you often, and now tell you even weeping, that they are enemies of the cross of Christ:19whose end is destruction, whose god is their belly, and who glory in their shame; who set their mind on earthly things.20For our citizenship is in Heaven, from which we also eagerly wait for the Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ,21who will transform our lowly body that it may be conformed to His glorious body, according to the working by which He is able even to subject all things to Himself.
Jamieson Fausset Brown Bible Commentary 1
WARNING AGAINST JUDAIZERS: HE HAS GREATER CAUSE THAN THEY TO TRUST IN LEGAL RIGHTEOUSNESS, BUT RENOUNCED IT FOR CHRIST'S RIGHTEOUSNESS, IN WHICH HE PRESSES AFTER PERFECTION: WARNING AGAINST CARNAL PERSONS: CONTRAST OF THE BELIEVER'S LIFE AND HOPE. (Phi. 3:1-21)
Finally--rather, not with the notion of time, but making a transition to another general subject, "Furthermore" [BENGEL and WAHL] as in 1Thess 4:1
. Literally, "As to what remains," &c. It is often used at the conclusion of Epistles for "finally" (Eph 6:10
; 2Thess 3:1
). But it is not restricted to this meaning, as ALFORD thinks, supposing that Paul used it here intending to close his Epistle, but was led by the mention of the Judaizers into a more lengthened dissertation.
the same things--concerning "rejoicing," the prevailing feature in this Epistle (Phil 1:18
, Phil 1:25
; Phil 2:17
; Phil 4:4
, where, compare the "again I say," with "the same things" here).
In the Lord--marks the true ground of joy, in contrast with "having confidence in the flesh," or in any outward sensible matter of boasting (Phil 3:3
not grievous--"not irksome."
for you it is safe--Spiritual joy is the best safety against error (Phil 3:2
; Neh 8:10
, end). 2
Beware--Greek, "Have your eye on" so as to beware of. Contrast "mark," or "observe," namely, so as to follow Phil 3:17
dogs--Greek, "the dogs," namely, those impure persons "of whom I have told you often" (Phil 3:18
); "the abominable" (compare Rev 21:8
, with Rev 22:15
; Matt 7:6
; Titus 1:15
): "dogs" in filthiness, unchastity, and snarling (Deut 23:18
; Ps 59:6
, Ps 59:14
; 2Pet 2:22
): especially "enemies of the cross of Christ" (Phil 3:18
; Ps 22:16
, Ps 22:20
). The Jews regarded the Gentiles as "dogs" (Matt 15:26
); but by their own unbelief they have ceased to be the true Israel, and are become "dogs" (compare Isa 56:10
evil workers-- (2Cor 11:13
), "deceitful workers." Not simply "evildoers" are meant, but men who "worked," indeed, ostensibly for the Gospel, but worked for evil: "serving not our Lord, but their own belly" (Phil 3:19
; compare Rom 16:18
). Translate, "The evil workmen," that is, bad teachers (compare 2Tim 2:15
concision--Circumcision had now lost its spiritual significance, and was now become to those who rested on it as any ground of justification, a senseless mutilation. Christians have the only true circumcision, namely, that of the heart; legalists have only "concision," that is, the cutting off of the flesh. To make "cuttings in the flesh" was expressly prohibited by the law (Lev 21:5
): it was a Gentile-heathenish practice (1Kgs 18:28
); yet this, writes Paul indignantly, is what these legalists are virtually doing in violation of the law. There is a remarkable gradation, says BIRKS [Horć Apostolicć] in Paul's language as to circumcision. In his first recorded discourse (Acts 13:39
), circumcision is not named, but implied as included in the law of Moses which cannot justify. Six or seven years later, in the Epistle to Galatians (Gal 3:3
), the first Epistle in which it is named, its spiritual inefficiency is maintained against those Gentiles who, beginning in the Spirit, thought to be perfected in the flesh. Later, in Epistle to Romans (Rom 2:28
), he goes farther, and claims the substance of it for every believer, assigning the shadow only of it to the unbelieving Jew. In Epistle to Colossians (Col 2:11
; Col 3:11
), still later, he expounds more fully the true circumcision as the exclusive privilege of the believer. Last of all here, the very name is denied to the legalist, and a term of reproach is substituted, "concision," or flesh-cutting. Once obligatory on all the covenant-people, then reduced to a mere national distinction, it was more and more associated in the apostle's experience with the open hostility of the Jews, and the perverse teaching of false brethren. 3
"We are the (real) circumcision" (Rom 2:25
; Col 2:11
worship God in the Spirit--The oldest manuscripts read, "worship by the Spirit of God"; our religious service is rendered by the Spirit (John 4:23
). Legal worship was outward, and consisted in outward acts, restricted to certain times and places. Christian worship is spiritual, flowing from the inworkings of the Holy Spirit, not relating to certain isolated acts, but embracing the whole life (Rom 12:1
). In the former, men trusted in something human, whether descent from the theocratic nation, or the righteousness of the law, or mortification of "the flesh" ("Having confidence," or "glorying in the flesh") [NEANDER] (Rom 1:9
rejoice in Christ Jesus--"make our boast in Christ Jesus," not in the law: the ground of their boasting.
have no confidence in the flesh--but in the Spirit. 4
"Although I (emphatical) might have confidence even in the flesh." Literally, "I having," but not using, "confidence in the flesh."
I more--have more "whereof I might have confidence in the flesh." 5
In three particulars he shows how he "might have confidence in the flesh" (Phil 3:4
): (1) His pure Jewish blood. (2) His legal preciseness and high status as such. (3) His zeal for the law. The Greek is literally, "Being in circumcision an eighth day person," that is, not one circumcised in later life as a proselyte, but on the eighth day after birth, as the law directed in the case of Jew-born infants.
of the tribe of Benjamin--son of Rachel, not of the maid-servant [BENGEL].
Hebrew of the Hebrews--neither one or other parent being Gentile. The "Hebrew," wherever he dwelt, retained the language of his fathers. Thus Paul, though settled in Tarsus, a Greek city, calls himself a Hebrew. A "Grecian" or Hellenist, on the other hand, in the New Testament, is the term used for a "Greek-speaking" Jew [TRENCH].
touching the law--that is, as to legal status and strictness.
a Pharisee--"of the straitest sect" (Acts 26:5
Concerning--Translate as before and after, "As touching Zeal" (compare Acts 22:3
; Acts 26:9
blameless--Greek, "having become blameless" as to ceremonial righteousness: having attained in the eyes of man blameless legal perfection. As to the holiness before God, which is the inner and truest spirit of the law, and which flows from "the righteousness of God by faith," he on the contrary declares (Phil 3:12
) that he has not attained perfection. 7
gain--rather as Greek, "gains"; including all possible advantages of outward status, which he had heretofore enjoyed.
I counted--Greek, "I have counted for Christ's sake loss." He no longer uses the plural as in "gains"; for he counts them all but one great "loss" (Matt 16:26
; Luke 9:25
Yea doubtless--The oldest manuscripts omit "doubtless" (Greek, "ge"): translate, "nay more." Not only "have I counted" those things just mentioned "loss for Christ's sake, but, moreover, I even DO count ALL things but loss," &c.
for the excellency--Greek, "On account of the surpassing excellency (the supereminence above them all) of the knowledge of Christ Jesus."
my Lord--believing and loving appropriation of Him (Ps 63:1
; John 20:28
for whom--"on account of whom."
I have suffered the loss--not merely I "counted" them "loss," but have actually lost them.
all things--The Greek has the article, referring to the preceding "all things"; "I have suffered the loss of them all."
dung--Greek, "refuse (such as excrements, dregs, dross) cast to the dogs," as the derivation expresses. A "loss" is of something having value; but "refuse" is thrown away as not worthy of being any more touched or looked at.
win--Translate, to accord with the translation, Phil 3:7
, "gain Christ." A man cannot make other things his "gain" or chief confidence, and at the same time "gain Christ." He who loses all things, and even himself, on account of Christ, gains Christ: Christ is His, and He is Christ's (Song 2:16
; Song 6:3
; Luke 9:23
; 1Cor 3:23
be found in him--"be found" at His coming again, living spiritually "in Him" as the element of my life. Once lost, I have been "found," and I hope to be perfectly "found" by Him (Luke 15:8
own righteousness . . . of the law-- (Phil 3:6
; Rom 10:3
, Rom 10:5
). "Of," that is, from.
righteousness . . . of God by faith--Greek, "which is from God (resting) upon faith." Paul was transported from legal bondage into Christian freedom at once, and without any gradual transition. Hence, the bands of Pharisaism were loosed instantaneously; and opposition to Pharisaic Judaism took the place of opposition to the Gospel. Thus God's providence fitly prepared him for the work of overthrowing all idea of legal justification. "The righteousness of faith," in Paul's sense, is the righteousness or perfect holiness of Christ appropriated by faith, as the objective ground of confidence for the believer, and also as a new subjective principle of life. Hence it includes the essence of a new disposition, and may easily pass into the idea of sanctification, though the two ideas are originally distinct. It is not any arbitrary act of God, as if he treated as sinless a man persisting in sin, simply because he believes in Christ; but the objective on the part of God corresponds to the subjective on the part of man, namely, faith. The realization of the archetype of holiness through Christ contains the pledge that this shall be realized in all who are one with Him by faith, and are become the organs of His Spirit. Its germ is imparted to them in believing although the fruit of a life perfectly conformed to the Redeemer, can only be gradually developed in this life [NEANDER]. 10
That I may know him--experimentally. The aim of the "righteousness" just mentioned. This verse resumes, and more fully explains, "the excellency of the knowledge of Christ" (Phil 3:8
). To know HIM is more than merely to know a doctrine about Him. Believers are brought not only to redemption, but to the Redeemer Himself.
the power of his resurrection--assuring believers of their justification (Rom 4:25
; 1Cor 15:17
), and raising them up spiritually with Him, by virtue of their identification with Him in this, as in all the acts of His redeeming work for us (Rom 6:4
; Col 2:12
; Col 3:1
). The power of the Divine Spirit, which raised Him from literal death, is the same which raises believers from spiritual death now (Eph 1:19
), and shall raise their bodies from literal death hereafter (Rom 8:11
the fellowship of his sufferings--by identification with Him in His sufferings and death, by imputation; also, in actually bearing the cross whatever is laid on us, after His example, and so "filling up that which is behind of the afflictions of Christ" (Col 1:24
); and in the will to bear aught for His sake (Matt 10:38
; Matt 16:24
; 2Tim 2:11
). As He bore all our sufferings (Isa 53:4
), so we participate in His.
made conformable unto his death--"conformed to the likeness of His death," namely, by continued sufferings for His sake, and mortifying of the carnal self (Rom 8:29
; 1Cor 15:31
; 2Cor 4:10
-12; Gal 2:20
If by any means--not implying uncertainty of the issue, but the earnestness of the struggle of faith (1Cor 9:26
-27), and the urgent need of jealous self-watchfulness (1Cor 10:12
attain unto the resurrection of the dead--The oldest manuscripts read, "the resurrection from (out of) the dead," namely, the first resurrection; that of believers at Christ's coming (1Cor 15:23
; 1Thess 4:15
; Rev 20:5
). The Greek word occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. "The power of Christ's resurrection" (Rom 1:4
), ensures the believer's attainment of the "resurrection from the (rest of the) dead" (compare Phil 3:20
). Compare "accounted worthy to obtain the resurrection from the dead" (Luke 20:35
). "The resurrection of the just" (Luke 14:14
Translate, "Not that I," &c. (I do not wish to be understood as saying that, &c.).
attained--"obtained," namely, a perfect knowledge of Christ, and of the power of His death, and fellowship of His sufferings, and a conformity to His death.
either were already perfect--"or am already perfected," that is, crowned with the garland of victory, my course completed, and perfection absolutely reached. The image is that of a race course throughout. See 1Cor 9:24
; Heb 12:23
. See TRENCH [Greek Synonyms of the New Testament].
I follow after--"I press on."
apprehend . . . apprehended--"If so be that I may lay hold on that (namely, the prize, Phil 3:14
) for which also I was laid hold on by Christ" (namely, at my conversion, Song 1:4
; 1Cor 13:12
Jesus--omitted in the oldest manuscripts. Paul was close to "apprehending" the prize (2Tim 4:7
-8). Christ the Author, is also the Finisher of His people's "race." 13
I--whatever others count as to themselves. He who counts himself perfect, must deceive himself by calling sin infirmity (1John 1:8
); at the same time, each must aim at perfection, to be a Christian at all (Matt 5:48
forgetting those things . . . behind--Looking back is sure to end in going back (Luke 9:62
): So Lot's wife (Luke 17:32
). If in stemming a current we cease pulling the oar against it, we are carried back. God's word to us is as it was to Israel, "Speak unto the children of Israel that they go forward" (Exod 14:15
). The Bible is our landmark to show us whether we are progressing or retrograding.
reaching forth--with hand and foot, like a runner in a race, and the body bent forward. The Christian is always humbled by the contrast between what he is and what he desires to be. The eye reaches before and draws on the hand, the hand reaches before and draws on the foot [BENGEL].
unto--towards (Heb 6:1
high calling--literally, "the calling that is above" (Gal 4:26
; Col 3:1
): "the heavenly calling" (Heb 3:1
). "The prize" is "the crown of righteousness" (1Cor 9:24
; 2Tim 4:8
). Rev 2:10
, "crown of life." 1Pet 5:4
, "a crown of glory that fadeth not away." "The high," or "heavenly calling," is not restricted, as ALFORD thinks, to Paul's own calling as an apostle by the summons of God from heaven; but the common calling of all Christians to salvation in Christ, which coming from heaven invites us to heaven, whither accordingly our minds ought to be uplifted. 15
therefore--resuming Phil 3:3
. "As many of us then, as are perfect," that is, full grown (no longer "babes") in the Christian life (Phil 3:3
, "worshipping God in the Spirit, and having no confidence in the flesh"), 1Cor 2:6
, fully established in things of God. Here, by "perfect," he means one fully fit for running [BENGEL]; knowing and complying with the laws of the course (2Tim 2:5
). Though "perfect" in this sense, he was not yet "made perfect" (Greek) in the sense intended in Phil 3:12
, namely, "crowned with complete victory," and having attained absolute perfection.
thus minded--having the mind which he had described, Phil 3:7
otherwise minded--having too high an opinion of yourselves as to your attainment of Christian perfection. "He who thinks that he has attained everything, hath nothing" [CHRYSOSTOM]. Probably, too, he refers to those who were tempted to think to attain to perfection by the law (Gal 3:3
): who needed the warning (Phil 3:3
), "Beware of the concision," though on account of their former piety, Paul hopes confidently (as in Gal 5:10
) that God will reveal the path of right-mindedness to them. Paul taught externally God "reveals" the truth internally by His Spirit (Matt 11:25
; Matt 16:17
; 1Cor 3:6
unto you--who sincerely strive to do God's will (John 7:17
; Eph 1:17
The expectation of a new revelation is not to make you less careful in walking according to whatever degree of knowledge of divine things and perfection you have already attained. God makes further revelations to those who walk up to the revelations they already have (Hos 6:3
rule, let us mind the same thing--omitted in the oldest manuscripts. Perhaps partly inserted from Gal 6:16
, and Phil 2:2
. Translate then, "Whereunto we have attained, let us walk on (a military term, march in order) in the same (the measure of knowledge already attained)." 17
followers--Greek, "imitators together."
of me--as I am an imitator of Christ (1Cor 11:1
): Imitate me no farther than as I imitate Christ. Or as BENGEL "My fellow imitators of God" or "Christ"; "imitators of Christ together with me" (see on Phil 2:22
; Eph 5:1
which walk so as ye have us for an ensample--In English Version of the former clause, the translation of this clause is, "those who are walking so as ye have an example in us." But in BENGEL'S translation, "inasmuch as," or "since," instead of "as." 18
many walk--in such a manner. Follow not evildoers, because they are "many" (Exod 23:2
). Their numbers are rather a presumption against their being Christ's "little flock" (Luke 12:32
often--There is need of constant warning.
weeping-- (Rom 9:2
). A hard tone in speaking of the inconsistencies of professors is the very opposite of Paul's spirit, and David's (Ps 119:136
), and Jeremiah's (Jer 13:17
). The Lord and His apostles, at the same time, speak more strongly against empty professors (as the Pharisees), than against open scoffers.
enemies of the cross of Christ--in their practice, not in doctrine (Gal 6:14
; Heb 6:6
; Heb 10:29
destruction--everlasting at Christ's coming. Phil 1:28
, "perdition"; the opposite word is "Saviour" (Phil 3:20
whose god is their belly-- (Rom 16:18
); hereafter to be destroyed by God (1Cor 6:13
). In contrast to our "body" (Phil 3:21
), which our God, the Lord Jesus, shall "fashion like unto His glorious body." Their belly is now pampered, our body now wasted; then the respective states of both shall be reversed.
glory is in their shame--As "glory" is often used in the Old Testament for God (Ps 106:20
), so here it answers to "whose God," in the parallel clause; and "shame" is the Old Testament term contemptuously given to an idol (Judg 6:32
, Margin). Hos 4:7
seems to be referred to by Paul (compare Rom 1:32
). There seems no allusion to circumcision, as no longer glorious, but a shame to them (Phil 3:2
). The reference of the immediate context is to sensuality, and carnality in general.
mind earthly things-- (Rom 8:5
). In contrast to Phil 3:20
; Col 3:2
our conversation--rather, "our state" or "country"; our citizenship: our life as citizens. We are but pilgrims on earth; how then should we "mind earthly things?" (Phil 3:19
; Heb 11:9
, Heb 11:13
). Roman citizenship was then highly prized; how much more should the heavenly citizenship (Acts 22:28
; compare Luke 10:20
is--Greek, "has its existence."
in heaven--Greek, "in the heavens."
look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ--"We wait for (so the same Greek is translated, Rom 8:19
) the Lord Jesus as a (that is, in the capacity of a) Saviour" (Heb 9:28
). That He is "the Lord," now exalted above every name, assures our expectation (Phil 2:9
). Our High Priest is gone up into the Holy of Holies not made with hands, there to atone for us; and as the Israelites stood outside the tabernacle, expecting Aaron's return (compare Luke 1:21
), so must we look unto the heavens expecting Christ thence. 21
Greek, "Who shall transfigure the body of our humiliation (namely, in which our humiliation has place, 2Cor 4:10
; Eph 2:19
; 2Tim 2:12
), that it may be conformed unto the body of His glory (namely, in which His glory is manifested), according to the effectual working whereby," &c. Not only shall He come as our "Saviour," but also as our Glorifier.
even--not only to make the body like His own, but "to subdue all things," even death itself, as well as Satan and sin. He gave a sample of the coming transfiguration on the mount (Matt 17:1
, &c.). Not a change of identity, but of fashion or form (Ps 17:15
; 1Cor 15:51
). Our spiritual resurrection now is the pledge of our bodily resurrection to glory hereafter (Phil 3:20
; Rom 8:11
). As Christ's glorified body was essentially identical with His body of humiliation; so our resurrection bodies as believers, since they shall be like His, shall be identical essentially with our present bodies, and yet "spiritual bodies" (1Cor 15:42
-44). Our "hope" is, that Christ, by His rising from the dead, hath obtained the power, and is become the pattern, of our resurrection (Mic 2:13