1My little children, these things I write to you, so that you may not sin. And if anyone sins, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous.2And He Himself is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the whole world.3Now by this we know that we know Him, if we keep His commandments.4He who says, I know Him, and does not keep His commandments, is a liar, and the truth is not in him.5But whoever keeps His Word, truly the love of God is perfected in him. By this we know that we are in Him.6He who says he abides in Him ought himself also to walk just as He walked.7Brethren, I do not write a new commandment to you, but an old commandment which you have had from the beginning. The old commandment is the Word which you heard from the beginning. 8Again, I write a new commandment to you, which is true in Him and in you, because the darkness is passing away, and the true light is already shining. 9He who says he is in the light, and hates his brother, is in darkness until now.10He who loves his brother abides in the light, and there is nothing in him to cause stumbling.11But he who hates his brother is in darkness and walks in darkness, and does not know where he is going, because the darkness has blinded his eyes.12I write to you, little children, because your sins are forgiven you through His name.13I write to you, fathers, because you have known Him from the beginning. I write to you, young men, because you have overcome evil. I write to you, little children, because you have known the Father.14I have written to you, fathers, because you have known Him from the beginning. I have written to you, young men, because you are strong, and the Word of God abides in you, and you have overcome evil.15Do not love the world or the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him.16For all that is in the world; the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life; is not of the Father but is of the world.17And the world is passing away, and its lust; but he who does the will of God abides forever.18Little children, it is the last hour; and as you have heard that the Antichrist is coming, even now many antichrists have risen up, by which we know that it is the last hour.19They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would have remained with us; but they went out that they might be made manifest, that not all of them are of us.20But you have an anointing from the Holy One, and you know all things.21I have not written to you because you do not know the truth, but because you know it, and that not any lie is of the truth.22Who is a liar but he who denies, saying that Jesus is not the Christ? He is antichrist who denies the Father and the Son.23Whoever denies the Son does not have the Father.24Therefore let abide in you that which you heard from the beginning. If what you heard from the beginning abides in you, you also will remain in the Son and in the Father.25And this is the promise that He has promised us: Eternal Life.26These things I have written to you concerning those who try to lead you astray.27But the anointing which you have received from Him abides in you, and you have no need for anyone to teach you; but as the same anointing teaches you concerning all things, and is true, and is not a lie, and just as it has taught you, you will remain in Him.28And now, little children, abide in Him, that when He is revealed, we may have confidence and not be distanced from Him in shame at His coming.29If you know that He is righteous, you know that everyone who produces righteousness is born of Him.
Jamieson Fausset Brown Bible Commentary 1
THE ADVOCACY OF CHRIST IS OUR ANTIDOTE TO SIN WHILE WALKING IN THE LIGHT; FOR TO KNOW GOD, WE MUST KEEP HIS COMMANDMENTS AND LOVE THE BRETHREN, AND NOT LOVE THE WORLD, NOR GIVE HEED TO ANTICHRISTS, AGAINST WHOM OUR SAFETY IS THROUGH THE INWARD ANOINTING OF GOD TO ABIDE IN GOD: SO AT CHRIST'S COMING WE SHALL NOT BE ASHAMED. (1Jo. 2:1-29)
My little children--The diminutive expresses the tender affection of an aged pastor and spiritual father. My own dear children, that is, sons and daughters (see on 1Jn 2:12
these things-- (1Jn 1:6
-10). My purpose in writing what I have just written is not that you should abuse them as giving a license to sin but, on the contrary, "in order that ye may not sin at all" (the Greek aorist, implying the absence not only of the habit, but of single acts of sin [ALFORD]). In order to "walk in the light" (1Jn 1:5
, 1Jn 1:7
), the first step is confession of sin (1Jn 1:9
), the next (1Jn 2:1
) is that we should forsake all sin. The divine purpose has for its aim, either to prevent the commission of, or to destroy sin [BENGEL].
And, &c.--connected with the former; Furthermore, "if any man sin," let him, while loathing and condemning it, not fear to go at once to God, the Judge, confessing it, for "we have an Advocate with Him." He is speaking of a BELIEVER'S occasional sins of infirmity through Satan's fraud and malice. The use of "we" immediately afterwards implies that we all are liable to this, though not necessarily constrained to sin.
we have an advocate--Advocacy is God's family blessing; other blessings He grants to good and bad alike, but justification, sanctification, continued intercession, and peace, He grants to His children alone.
advocate--Greek, "paraclete," the same term as is applied to the Holy Ghost, as the "other Comforter"; showing the unity of the Second and Third Persons of the Trinity. Christ is the Intercessor for us above; and, in His absence, here below the Holy Ghost is the other Intercessor in us. Christ's advocacy is inseparable from the Holy Spirit's comfort and working in us, as the spirit of intercessory prayer.
righteous--As our "advocate," Christ is not a mere suppliant petitioner. He pleads for us on the ground of justice, or righteousness, as well as mercy. Though He can say nothing good of us, He can say much for us. It is His righteousness, or obedience to the law, and endurance of its full penalty for us, on which He grounds His claim for our acquittal. The sense therefore is, "in that He is righteous"; in contrast to our sin ("if any man sin"). The Father, by raising Him from the dead, and setting Him at His own right, has once for all accepted Christ's claim for us. Therefore the accuser's charges against God's children are vain. "The righteousness of Christ stands on our side; for God's righteousness is, in Jesus Christ, ours" [LUTHER]. 2
And he--Greek, "And Himself." He is our all-prevailing Advocate, because He is Himself "the propitiation"; abstract, as in 1Ko 1:30
: He is to us all that is needed for propitiation "in behalf of our sins"; the propitiatory sacrifice, provided by the Father's love, removing the estrangement, and appeasing the righteous wrath, on God's part, against the sinner. "There is no incongruity that a father should be offended with that son whom he loveth, and at that time offended with him when he loveth him" [BISHOP PEARSON]. The only other place in the New Testament where Greek "propitiation" occurs, is 1Jn 4:10
; it answers in the Septuagint to Hebrew, "caphar," to effect an atonement or reconciliation with God; and in Eze 44:29
, to the sin offering. In Rz 3:25
, Greek, it is "propitiatory," that is, the mercy seat, or lid of the ark whereon God, represented by the Shekinah glory above it, met His people, represented by the high priest who sprinkled the blood of the sacrifice on it.
ours--believers: not Jews, in contrast to Gentiles; for he is not writing to Jews (1Jn 5:21
also for the sins of the whole world--Christ's "advocacy" is limited to believers (1Jn 2:1
; 1Jn 1:7
): His propitiation extends as widely as sin extends: see on 2Pt 2:1
, "denying the Lord that bought them." "The whole world" cannot be restricted to the believing portion of the world (compare 1Jn 4:14
; and "the whole world," 1Jn 5:19
). "Thou, too, art part of the world, so that thine heart cannot deceive itself and think, The Lord died for Peter and Paul, but not for me" [LUTHER]. 3
hereby--Greek, "in this." "It is herein," and herein only, that we know (present tense) that we have knowledge of (perfect tense, once-for-all obtained and continuing knowledge of) Him" (1Jn 2:4
, 1Jn 2:13
-14). Tokens whereby to discern grace are frequently given in this Epistle. The Gnostics, by the Spirit's prescient forewarning, are refuted, who boasted of knowledge, but set aside obedience. "Know Him," namely, as "the righteous" (1Jn 2:1
, 1Jn 2:29
); our "Advocate and Intercessor."
keep--John's favorite word, instead of "do," literally, "watch," "guard," and "keep safe" as a precious thing; observing so as to keep. So Christ Himself. Not faultless conformity, but hearty acceptance of, and willing subjection to, God's whole revealed will, is meant.
commandments--injunctions of faith, love, and obedience. John never uses "the law" to express the rule of Christian obedience: he uses it as the Mosaic law. 4
I know--Greek, "I have knowledge of (perfect) Him." Compare with this verse 1Jn 1:8
Not merely repeating the proposition, 1Jn 2:3
, or asserting the merely opposite alternative to 1Jn 2:4
, but expanding the "know Him" of 1Jn 2:3
, into "in Him, verily (not as a matter of vain boasting) is the love of (that is towards) God perfected," and "we are in Him." Love here answers to knowledge in 1Jn 2:3
. In proportion as we love God, in that same proportion we know Him, and vice versa, until our love and knowledge shall attain their full maturity of perfection.
his word--His word is one (see on 1Jn 1:5
), and comprises His "commandments," which are many (1Jn 2:3
hereby--in our progressing towards this ideal of perfected love and obedience. There is a gradation: 1Jn 2:3
, "know Him"; 1Jn 2:5
, "we are in Him"; 1Jn 2:6
, "abideth in Him"; respectively, knowledge, fellowship, abiding constancy. [BENGEL]. 6
abideth--implying a condition lasting, without intermission, and without end.
He that saith . . . ought--so that his deeds may be consistent with his words.
even as he--Believers readily supply the name, their hearts being full of Him (compare Jn 20:15
). "Even as He walked" when on earth, especially in respect to love. John delights in referring to Christ as the model man, with the words, "Even as He," &c. "It is not Christ's walking on the sea, but His ordinary walk, that we are called on to imitate" [LUTHER]. 7
Brethren--The oldest manuscripts and versions read instead, "Beloved," appropriate to the subject here, love.
no new commandment--namely, love, the main principle of walking as Christ walked (1Jn 2:6
), and that commandment, of which one exemplification is presently given, 1Jn 2:9
-10, the love of brethren.
ye had from the beginning--from the time that ye first heard the Gospel word preached. 8
a new commandment--It was "old," in that Christians as such had heard it from the first; but "new" (Greek, "kaine," not "nea": new and different from the old legal precept) in that it was first clearly promulgated with Christianity; though the inner spirit of the law was love even to enemies, yet it was enveloped in some bitter precepts which caused it to be temporarily almost unrecognized, till the Gospel came. Christianity first put love to brethren on the new and highest MOTIVE, instinctive love to Him who first loved us, constraining us to love all, even enemies, thereby walking in the steps of Him who loved us when enemies. So Jesus calls it "new," Jn 13:34
, "Love one another as I have loved you" (the new motive); Jn 15:12
which thing is true in him and in you--"In Christ all things are always true, and were so from the beginning; but in Christ and in us conjointly the commandment [the love of brethren] is then true when we acknowledge the truth which is in Him, and have the same flourishing in us" [BENGEL]. ALFORD explains, "Which thing (the fact that the commandment is a new one) is true in Him and in you because the darkness is passing away, and the true light is now shining; that is, the commandment is a new one, and this is true both in the case of Christ and in the case of you; because in you the darkness is passing away, and in Him the true light is shining; therefore, on both accounts, the command is a new one: new as regards you, because you are newly come from darkness into light; new as regards Him, because He uttered it when He came into the world to lighten every man, and began that shining which even now continues." I prefer, as BENGEL, to explain, The new commandment finds its truth in its practical realization in the walk of Christians in union with Christ. Compare the use of "verily," 1Jn 2:5
. Jn 4:42
, "indeed"; Jn 6:55
. The repetition of "in" before "you," "in Him and in you," not "in Him and you" implies that the love commandment finds its realization separately: first it did so "in Him," and then it does so "in us," in so far as we now "also walk even as He walked"; and yet it finds its realization also conjointly, by the two being united in one sentence, even as it is by virtue of the love commandment having been first fulfilled in Him, that it is also now fulfilled in us, through His Spirit in us: compare a similar case, Jn 20:17
, "My Father and your Father"; by virtue of His being "My Father," He is also your Father.
darkness is past--rather, as in 1Jn 2:17
, "is passing away." It shall not be wholly "past" until "the Sun of righteousness" shall arise visibly; "the light is now shining" already, though but partially until the day bursts forth. 9
There is no mean between light and darkness, love and hatred, life and death, God and the world: wherever spiritual life is, however weak, there darkness and death no longer reign, and love supplants hatred; and Łk 9:50
holds good: wherever life is not, there death, darkness, the flesh, the world, and hatred, however glossed over and hidden from man's observation, prevail; and Łk 11:23
holds good. "Where love is not, there hatred is; for the heart cannot remain a void" [BENGEL].
in the light--as his proper element.
his brother--his neighbor, and especially those of the Christian brotherhood. The very title "brother" is a reason why love should be exercised.
even until now--notwithstanding that "the true light already has begun to shine" (1Jn 2:8
Abiding in love is abiding in the light; for the Gospel light not only illumines the understanding, but warms the heart into love.
none occasion of stumbling--In contrast to, "He that hateth his brother is in darkness, and walketh in darkness, and knoweth not whither he goeth, because that darkness hath blinded his eyes." "In him who loves there is neither blindness nor occasion of stumbling [to himself]: in him who does not love, there is both blindness and occasion of stumbling. He who hates his brother, is both a stumbling-block to himself, and stumbles against himself and everything within and without; he who loves has an unimpeded path" [BENGEL]. John has in mind Jesus' words, Jn 11:9
. ALFORD well says, "The light and the darkness are within ourselves; admitted into us by the eye, whose singleness fills the whole body with light." 11
is in darkness . . . walketh--"is" marks his continuing STATE: he has never come out of "the darkness" (so Greek); "walketh" marks his OUTWARD WALK and acts.
whither--Greek, "where"; including not only the destination to which, but the way whereby.
hath blinded--rather, as Greek aorist, "blinded" of old. Darkness not only surrounds, but blinds him, and that a blindness of long standing. 12
little children--Greek, "little sons," or "dear sons and daughters"; not the same Greek as in 1Jn 2:13
, "little children," "infants" (in age and standing). He calls ALL to whom he writes, "little sons" (1Jn 2:1
, Greek; 1Jn 2:28
; 1Jn 3:18
; 1Jn 4:4
; 1Jn 5:21
); but only in 1Jn 2:13
, 1Jn 2:18
he uses the term "little children," or "infants." Our Lord, whose Spirit John so deeply drank into, used to His disciples (Jn 13:33
) the term "little sons," or dear sons and daughters; but in Jn 21:5
, "little children." It is an undesigned coincidence with the Epistle here, that in John's Gospel somewhat similarly the classification, "lambs, sheep, sheep," occurs.
are forgiven--"have been, and are forgiven you": ALL God's sons and daughters alike enjoy this privilege. 13
All three classes are first addressed in the present. "I write"; then in the past (aorist) tense, "I wrote" (not "I have written"; moreover, in the oldest manuscripts and versions, in the end of 1Jn 2:13
, it is past, "I wrote," not as English Version, "I write"). Two classes, "fathers" and "young men," are addressed with the same words each time (except that the address to the young men has an addition expressing the source and means of their victory); but the "little sons" and "little children" are differently addressed.
have known--and do know: so the Greek perfect means. The "I wrote" refers not to a former Epistle, but to this Epistle. It was an idiom to put the past tense, regarding the time from the reader's point of view; when he should receive the Epistle the writing would be past. When he uses "I write," he speaks from his own point of view.
him that is from the beginning--Christ: "that which was from the beginning."
overcome--The fathers, appropriately to their age, are characterized by knowledge. The young men, appropriately to theirs, by activity in conflict. The fathers, too, have conquered; but now their active service is past, and they and the children alike are characterized by knowing (the fathers know Christ, "Him that was from the beginning"; the children know the Father). The first thing that the little children realize is that God is their Father; answering in the parallel clause to "little sons . . . your sins are forgiven you for His name's sake," the universal first privilege of all those really-dear sons of God. Thus this latter clause includes all, whereas the former clause refers to those more especially who are in the first stage of spiritual life, "little children." Of course, these can only know the Father as theirs through the Son (Mt 11:27
). It is beautiful to see how the fathers are characterized as reverting back to the first great truths of spiritual childhood, and the sum and ripest fruit of advanced experience, the knowledge of Him that was from the beginning (twice repeated, 1Jn 2:13
-14). Many of them had probably known Jesus in person, as well as by faith. 14
young men . . . strong--made so out of natural weakness, hence enabled to overcome "the strong man armed" through Him that is "stronger." Faith is the victory that overcomes the world. This term "overcome" is peculiarly John's, adopted from his loved Lord. It occurs sixteen times in the Apocalypse, six times in the First Epistle, only thrice in the rest of the New Testament. In order to overcome the world on the ground, and in the strength, of the blood of the Saviour, we must be willing, like Christ, to part with whatever of the world belongs to us: whence immediately after "ye have overcome the wicked one (the prince of the world)," it is added, "Love not the world, neither the things . . . in the world."
and, &c.--the secret of the young men's strength: the Gospel word, clothed with living power by the Spirit who abideth permanently in them; this is "the sword of the Spirit" wielded in prayerful waiting on God. Contrast the mere physical strength of young men, Iz 40:30
. Oral teaching prepared these youths for the profitable use of the word when written. "Antichrist cannot endanger you (1Jn 2:18
), nor Satan tear from you the word of God."
the wicked one--who, as "prince of this world," enthrals "the world" (1Jn 2:15
-17; 1Jn 5:19
, Greek, "the wicked one"), especially the young. Christ came to destroy this "prince of the world." Believers achieve the first grand conquest over him when they pass from darkness to light, but afterwards they need to maintain a continual keeping of themselves from his assaults, looking to God by whom alone they are kept safe. BENGEL thinks John refers specially to the remarkable constancy exhibited by youths in Domitian's persecution. Also to the young man whom John, after his return from Patmos, led with gentle, loving persuasion to repentance. This youth had been commended to the overseers of the Church by John, in one of his tours of superintendency, as a promising disciple; he had been, therefore, carefully watched up to baptism. But afterwards relying too much on baptismal grace, he joined evil associates, and fell from step to step down, till he became a captain of robbers. When John, some years after, revisited that Church and heard of the youth's sad fall, he hastened to the retreat of the robbers, suffered himself to be seized and taken into the captain's presence. The youth, stung by conscience and the remembrance of former years, fled away from the venerable apostle. Full of love the aged father ran after him, called on him to take courage, and announced to him forgiveness of his sins in the name of Christ. The youth was recovered to the paths of Christianity, and was the means of inducing many of his bad associates to repent and believe [CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA, Who Is the Rich Man Who Shall Be Saved? 4.2; EUSEBIUS, Ecclesiastical History, 3.20; CHRYSOSTOM, First Exhortation to Theodore, 11]. 15
Love not the world--that lieth in the wicked one (1Jn 5:19
), whom ye young men have overcome. Having once for all, through faith, overcome the world (1Jn 4:4
; 1Jn 5:4
), carry forward the conquest by not loving it. "The world" here means "man, and man's world" [ALFORD], in his and its state as fallen from God. "God loved [with the love of compassion] the world," and we should feel the same kind of love for the fallen world; but we are not to love the world with congeniality and sympathy in its alienation from God; we cannot have this latter kind of love for the God-estranged world, and yet have also "the love of the Father in" us.
neither--Greek, "nor yet." A man might deny in general that he loved the world, while keenly following some one of THE THINGS IN IT: its riches, honors, or pleasures; this clause prevents him escaping from conviction.
any man--therefore the warning, though primarily addressed to the young, applies to all.
love of--that is, towards "the Father." The two, God and the (sinful) world, are so opposed, that both cannot be congenially loved at once. 16
all that is in the world--can be classed under one or other of the three; the world contains these and no more.
lust of the flesh--that is, the lust which has its seat and source in our lower animal nature. Satan tried this temptation the first on Christ: Łk 4:3
, "Command this stone that it be made bread." Youth is especially liable to fleshly lusts.
lust of the eyes--the avenue through which outward things of the world, riches, pomp, and beauty, inflame us. Satan tried this temptation on Christ when he showed Him the kingdoms of the world in a moment. By the lust of the eyes David (2Sm 11:2
) and Achan fell (Joz 7:21
). Compare David's prayer, Ps 119:37
; Job's resolve, Ps 31:1
; Mt 5:28
. The only good of worldly riches to the possessor is the beholding them with the eyes. Compare Łk 14:18
, "I must go and SEE it."
pride of life--literally, "arrogant assumption": vainglorious display. Pride was Satan's sin whereby he fell and forms the link between the two foes of man, the world (answering to "the lust of the eyes") and the devil (as "the lust of the flesh" is the third foe). Satan tried this temptation on Christ in setting Him on the temple pinnacle that, in spiritual pride and presumption, on the ground of His Father's care, He should cast Himself down. The same three foes appear in the three classes of soil on which the divine seed falls: the wayside hearers, the devil; the thorns, the world; the rocky undersoil, the flesh (Mt 13:18
; Mk 4:3
). The world's awful antitrinity, the "lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life," similarly is presented in Satan's temptation of Eve: "When she saw that the tree was good for food, pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise," Rdz 3:6
(one manifestation of "the pride of life," the desire to know above what God has revealed, Kol 2:8
, the pride of unsanctified knowledge).
of--does not spring from "the Father" (used in relation to the preceding "little children," 1Jn 2:12
, or "little sons"). He who is born of God alone turns to God; he who is of the world turns to the world; the sources of love to God and love to the world, are irreconcilably distinct. 17
the world--with all who are of the world worldly.
passeth away--Greek, "is passing away" even now.
the lust thereof--in its threefold manifestation (1Jn 2:16
he that doeth the will of God--not his own fleshly will, or the will of the world, but that of God (1Jn 2:3
, 1Jn 2:6
), especially in respect to love.
abideth for ever--"even as God also abideth for ever" (with whom the godly is one; compare Ps 55:19
, "God, even He that abideth of old): a true comment, which CYPRIAN and LUCIFER have added to the text without support of Greek manuscripts. In contrast to the three passing lusts of the world, the doer of God's will has three abiding goods, "riches, honor, and life" (Prz 22:4
Little children--same Greek as 1Jn 2:13
; children in age. After the fathers and young men were gone, "the last time" with its "many Antichrists" was about to come suddenly on the children. "In this last hour we all even still live" [BENGEL]. Each successive age has had in it some of the signs of "the last time" which precedes Christ's coming, in order to keep the Church in continual waiting for the Lord. The connection with 1Jn 2:15
-17 is: There are coming those seducers who are of the world (1Jn 4:5
), and would tempt you to go out from us (1Jn 2:19
) and deny Christ (1Jn 2:22
as ye have heard--from the apostles, preachers of the Gospel (for example, 2Ts 2:3
-10; and in the region of Ephesus, Dz 20:29
shall come--Greek, "cometh," namely, out of his own place. Antichrist is interpreted in two ways: a false Christ (Mt 24:5
, Mt 24:24
), literally, "instead of Christ"; or an adversary of Christ, literally, "against Christ." As John never uses pseudo-Christ, or "false Christ," for Antichrist, it is plain he means an adversary of Christ, claiming to himself what belongs to Christ, and wishing to substitute himself for Christ as the supreme object of worship. He denies the Son, not merely, like the pope, acts in the name of the Son, 2Ts 2:4
, "Who opposeth himself (Greek, " ANTI-keimenos") [to] all that is called God," decides this. For God's great truth, "God is man," he would substitute his own lie, "man is God" [TRENCH].
are there--Greek, "there have begun to be"; there have arisen. These "many Antichrists" answer to "the spirit of lawlessness (Greek) doth already work." The Antichristian principle appeared then, as now, in evil men and evil teachings and writings; but still "THE Antichrist" means a hostile person, even as "THE Christ" is a personal Saviour. As "cometh" is used of Christ, so here of Antichrist, the embodiment in his own person of all the Antichristian features and spirit of those "many Antichrists" which have been, and are, his forerunners. John uses the singular of him. No other New Testament writer uses the term. He probably answers to "the little horn having the eyes of a man, and speaking great things" (Dn 7:8
, Dn 7:20
); "the man of sin, son of perdition" (2Ts 2:3
); "the beast ascending out of the bottomless pit" (Obj 11:7
; Obj 17:8
), or rather, "the false prophet," the same as "the second beast coming up out of the earth" (Obj 13:11
; Obj 16:13
out from us--from our Christian communion. Not necessarily a formal secession or going out: thus Rome has spiritually gone out, though formally still of the Christian Church.
not of us--by spiritual fellowship (1Jn 1:3
). "They are like bad humors in the body of Christ, the Church: when they are vomited out, then the body is relieved; the body of Christ is now still under treatment, and has not yet attained the perfect soundness which it shall have only at the resurrection" [AUGUSTINE, Ten Homilies on the First Epistle of John, Homily 3.4].
they would . . . have continued--implying the indefectibility of grace in the elect. "Where God's call is effectual, there will be sure perseverance" [CALVIN]. Still, it is no fatal necessity, but a "voluntary necessity" [DIDYMUS], which causes men to remain, or else go from the body of Christ. "We are either among the members, or else among the bad humors. It is of his own will that each is either an Antichrist, or in Christ" [AUGUSTINE]. Still God's actings in eternal election harmonize in a way inexplicable to us, with man's free agency and responsibility. It is men's own evil will that chooses the way to hell; it is God's free and sovereign grace that draws any to Himself and to heaven. To God the latter shall ascribe wholly their salvation from first to last: the former shall reproach themselves alone, and not God's decree, with their condemnation (1Jn 3:9
; 1Jn 5:18
that they were not all of us--This translation would imply that some of the Antichrists are of us! Translate, therefore, "that all (who are for a time among us) are not of us." Compare 1Ko 11:19
, "There must be heresies among you, that they which are approved may be made manifest among you." For "were" some of the oldest manuscripts read "are." Such occasions test who are, and who are not, the Lord's people. 20
But--Greek, "And." He here states the means which they as believers have wherewith to withstand. Antichrists (1Jn 2:18
), namely, the chrism (so the Greek: a play upon similar sounds), or "anointing unguent," namely, the Holy Spirit (more plainly mentioned further on, as in John's style, 1Jn 3:24
; 1Jn 4:13
; 1Jn 5:6
), which they ("ye" is emphatical in contrast to those apostates, 1Jn 2:19
) have "from the Holy One, Christ" (Jn 1:33
; Jn 3:34
; Jn 15:26
; Jn 16:14
): "the righteous" (1Jn 2:1
), "pure" (1Jn 3:3
), "the Holy One" (Dz 3:14
) "of God"; Mk 1:24
. Those anointed of God in Christ alone can resist those anointed with the spirit of Satan, Antichrists, who would sever them from the Father and from the Son. Believers have the anointing Spirit from the Father also, as well as from the Son; even as the Son is anointed therewith by the Father. Hence the Spirit is the token that we are in the Father and in the Son; without it a man is none of Christ. The material unguent of costliest ingredients, poured on the head of priests and kings, typified this spiritual unguent, derived from Christ, the Head, to us, His members. We can have no share in Him as Jesus, except we become truly Christians, and so be in Him as Christ, anointed with that unction from the Holy One. The Spirit poured on Christ, the Head, is by Him diffused through all the members. "It appears that we all are the body of Christ, because we all are anointed: and we all in Him are both Christ's and Christ, because in some measure the whole Christ is Head and body."
ye know all things--needful for acting aright against Antichrist's seductions, and for Christian life and godliness. In the same measure as one hath the Spirit, in that measure (no more and no less) he knows all these things. 21
but because ye know it, and that, &c.--Ye not only know what is the truth (concerning the Son and the Father, 1Jn 2:13
), but also are able to detect a lie as a thing opposed to the truth. For right (a straight line) is the index of itself and of what is crooked [ESTIUS]. The Greek is susceptible of ALFORD'S translation, "Because ye know it, and because no lie is of the truth" (literally, "every lie is excluded from being of the truth"). I therefore wrote (in this Epistle) to point out what the lie is, and who the liars are. 22
a liar--Greek, "Who is the liar?" namely, guilty of the lie just mentioned (1Jn 2:21
that Jesus is the Christ--the grand central truth.
He is Antichrist--Greek, "the Antichrist"; not however here personal, but in the abstract; the ideal of Antichrist is "he that denieth the Father and the Son." To deny the latter is virtually to deny the former. Again, the truth as to the Son must be held in its integrity; to deny that Jesus is the Christ, or that He is the Son of God, or that He came in the flesh, invalidates the whole (Mt 11:27
Greek, "Every one who denieth the Son, hath not the Father either" (1Jn 4:2
-3): "inasmuch as God hath given Himself to us wholly to be enjoyed in Christ" [CALVIN].
he--that acknowledgeth the Son hath the Father also. These words ought not to be in italics, as though they were not in the original: for the oldest Greek manuscripts have them.
hath--namely, in his abiding possession as his "portion"; by living personal "fellowship."
acknowledgeth--by open confession of Christ. 24
Let that--truth respecting the Father and the Son, regarded as a seed not merely dropped in, but having taken root (1Jn 3:9
ye--in the Greek standing emphatically at the beginning of the sentence. YE, therefore, acknowledge the Son, and so shall ye have the Father also (1Jn 2:23
from the beginning--from the time of your first hearing the Gospel.
remain--Translate as before, "abide."
ye also--in your turn, as distinguished from "that which ye have heard," the seed abiding in you. Compare 1Jn 2:27
, "the anointing abideth in you . . . ye shall abide in Him." Having taken into us the living seed of the truth concerning the Father and the Son, we become transformed into the likeness of Him whose seed we have taken into us. 25
this is the promise--Eternal life shall be the permanent consummation of thus abiding in the Son and in the Father (1Jn 2:24
he--Greek, "Himself," Christ, "the Son" (compare 1Jn 1:1
promised-- (Jn 3:15
, Jn 3:36
; Jn 6:40
, Jn 6:47
, Jn 6:57
; Jn 17:2
These things-- (1Jn 2:18
have I written--resumed from 1Jn 2:21
and 1Jn 2:14
seduce you--that is, are trying to seduce or lead you into error. 27
But--Greek, "And you (contrasting the believing readers with the seducers; the words 'and you' stand prominent, the construction of the sentence following being altered, and no verb agreeing with 'and you' until 'need not') . . . the anointing," &c. (resumed from 1Jn 2:20
received of him-- (Jn 1:16
). So we "are unto God a sweet savor of Christ."
abideth in you--He tacitly thus admonishes them to say, when tempted by seducers, "The anointing abideth in us; we do not need a teacher [for we have the Holy Spirit as our teacher, Jer 31:34
; Jn 6:45
; Jn 16:13
]; it teaches us the truth; in that teaching we will abide" [BENGEL].
and--and therefore. God is sufficient for them who are taught of Him; they are independent of all others, though, of course, not declining the Christian counsel of faithful ministers. "Mutual communication is not set aside, but approved of, in the case of those who are partakers of the anointing in one body" [BENGEL].
the same anointing--which ye once for all received, and which now still abides in you.
all things--essential to salvation; the point under discussion. Not that the believer is made infallible, for no believer here receives the Spirit in all its fulness, but only the measure needful for keeping him from soul-destroying error. So the Church, though having the Spirit in her, is not infallible (for many fallible members can never make an infallible whole), but is kept from ever wholly losing the saving truth.
no lie--as Antichristian teaching.
ye shall abide in him-- (1Jn 2:24
, end); even as "the anointing abideth in you." The oldest manuscripts read the imperative, "abide in Him." 28
little children--Greek, "little sons," as in 1Jn 2:12
; believers of every stage and age.
abide in him--Christ. John repeats his monition with a loving appellation, as a father addressing dear children.
when--literally, "if"; the uncertainty is not as to the fact, but the time.
appear--Greek, "be manifested."
we--both writer and readers.
ashamed before him--literally, "from Him"; shrink back from Him ashamed. Contrast "boldness in the day of judgment," 1Jn 4:17
; compare 1Jn 3:21
; 1Jn 5:14
. In the Apocalypse (written, therefore, BENGEL thinks, subsequently), Christ's coming is represented as put off to a greater distance. 29
The heading of the second division of the Epistle: "God is righteous; therefore, every one that doeth righteousness is born of Him." Love is the grand feature and principle of "righteousness" selected for discussion, 1Jo. 2:29-3:3.
If ye know . . . ye know--distinct Greek verbs: "if ye are aware (are in possession of the knowledge) . . . ye discern or apprehend also that," &c. Ye are already aware that God ("He" includes both "the Father," of whom the believer is born (end of this verse, and 1Jn 3:1
), and "the Son," 1Jn 2:1
, 1Jn 2:23
) is righteous, ye must necessarily, thereby, perceive also the consequence of that truth, namely, "that everyone that doeth righteousness (and he alone; literally, the righteousness such as the righteous God approves) is born of Him." The righteous produceth the righteous. We are never said to be born again of Christ, but of God, with whom Christ is one. HOLLAZ in ALFORD defines the righteousness of God, "It is the divine energy by whose power God wills and does all things which are conformable to His eternal law, prescribes suitable laws to His creatures, fulfils His promises to men, rewards the good, and punishes the ungodly."
doeth--"For the graces (virtues) are practical, and have their being in being produced (in being exercised); for when they have ceased to act, or are only about to act, they have not even being" [śCUMENIUS]. "God is righteous, and therefore the source of righteousness; when then a man doeth righteousness, we know that the source of his righteousness is God, that consequently he has acquired by new birth from God that righteousness which he had not by nature. We argue from his doing righteousness, to his being born of God. The error of Pelagians is to conclude that doing righteousness is a condition of becoming a child of God" [ALFORD most truly]. Compare Łk 7:47
, Łk 7:50
: Her much love evinced that her sins were already forgiven; not, were the condition of her sins being forgiven.